About CESC Generation

Welcome to Generation Division!

We are committed to:

  • Generating uninterrupted power for our consumers
  • Maximising capacity utilization & being cost effective and efficient
  • Continuous performance improvements through innovation
  • Integrating Safe and Environmentally friendly practices in O&M within the framework of ESG and Corporate Core Values.

We have three coal fired power generating stations with a total capacity of 1125 MW. Out of these three power plants, the 750 MW Budge Budge Generating Station is the youngest (1997). The other two power plants are the 240 MW Titagarh Generating Station (1982) and the 135 MW Southern Generating Station (1990). All power plants are based on pulverised coal fired boilers and steam driven turbogenerators.

Our Power Plants A Brief History

The first thermal power generating station of 15 MW capacity was erected in Cossipore in North Kolkata on the 20th July,1912. Two more 6 MW sets were added in 1912 and another 15 MW set was added in 1925. Further augmentation continued till 1932 when the installed capacity of Cossipore Generating Station totalled to 96 MW. In order to cater to the power requirement of the southern part of the city, a new generating station called “Southern Generating Station”, was commissioned on 22nd December 1926 at Metiabruz. Initial capacity of this power house was 22.5 MW comprising of three turbo alternators of 7.5 MW capacity each.

Gradually the installed capacity was increased to 70 MW. In the next phase of growth, another generating station, the “Mulajore Generating Station”, was commissioned in the northern suburbs of Kolkata on the 15th January 1940 with two 30 MW sets. Subsequent addition of turbo alternators followed in 1943, 1950 and 1951 resulting in a final capacity of 150 MW. The post World War II saw a boom for industrialization and the resultant demand for electricity gave birth to a modern power station in the year 1949 which was named “New Cossipore Generating Station”. The station comprised of two 30 MW sets and one 50 MW set. Another 50 MW set was added in 1963 increasing the installed capacity of the plant to 160 MW. In 1978, the Cossipore Generating Station was closed down due to aging. From early seventies, power shortage was experienced in the south of Bengal including the city of Kolkata. During this period, expansion programmes of CESC were restricted due to then prevailing regulations, which were however relaxed in the early eighties. Subsequently, the company constructed a 240 MW thermal power station at Titagarh in the northern suburbs of Kolkata. The plant has four 60 MW sets commissioned between 1983 and 1985. In the year 1986 it was decided to replace the old and retired Southern Generating Station with a new modern power plant comprising of two sets of 67.5 MW, the first of which was commissioned in 1990 and the second in 1991. In 1989, the West Bengal State Electricity Board handed over it's Kasba Gas Turbine Generating Station in Kolkata, having 2 X 20 MW Gas Turbine sets, to CESC on lease for Operation and Maintenance which continued till 1997. The youngest and largest power station of the company, Budge Budge Generating Station, consisting of two 250 MW sets was commissioned between 1997 to 1999. Later in 2010, the third 250 MW unit of Budge Budge was commissioned and thus the total generating capacity of Budge Budge became 750 MW. Due to ageing of the older plants, the Mulajore and New Cossipore Generating Stations have been closed down.

Coal to Electricity (How power is generated)

  • Coal as the primary source of energy is supplied from the coal fields to our power plants by railway wagons and is unloaded by wagon tipplers and track hoppers.
  • Unloaded coal is either stacked in the storage yard or is conveyed to the crushers, which crush the large coal chunks into small sizes. Stacked coal can be reclaimed later as per requirement.
  • The crushed coal is conveyed to the storage bunkers. From the bunkers, coal goes into the Coal Feeders for controlling the feed and then to the pulverisers (Coal Mills) where it is ground into a fine consistency like talcum powder. This powdered coal is known as Pulverized fuel.
  • The pulverized coal mixed with air is transported into the boiler, where it burns at very high temperatures. As coal is burned, combustion gases and ash are produced. The coarser and heavier particles of ash fall from the furnace into the ash hoppers (Bottom Ash). Finer particles of ash are carried with the combustion gas (Flue Gas) through the furnace. This ash (Fly Ash) is removed in electrostatic precipitators (ESP's) before the gas leaves the plant through the chimney or stack. The ESP's, having over 99.5% efficiency are used to eliminate the particulate matter going to atmosphere.
  • The boiler consists of very large number of tubes in the formation of a rectangular room made up of tube walls. Water being circulated through the boiler's walls of steel tubing is heated to produce steam. There is a drum at the top of the boiler where separation of steam and water takes place.
  • High pressure steam generated from the boiler enters and strikes the blades of the turbine, causing the turbine to rotate. The rotating turbine turns the rotor of the electrical generator which produces electricity.
  • The steam leaves the turbine after passing through successive stages of blades, doing its work and moves into the condenser. In the condenser the steam gets condensed into water and is again pumped into the boiler to be heated to steam. This cycle goes on.
  • Electricity from the generator leaves the plant to begin its journey throughout the transmission and distribution system.
  • Transmission towers support high voltage lines which carry electricity over long distances throughout the network.
  • At substations, voltage is decreased and electricity is sent through distribution network into homes, offices, shops and factories of consumers.

Major Performance Parameters

In the mechanism of the power generation process, the key focus areas are

Availability & Reliability

Availability & Reliability





The most important objective of our power generation process is to provide uninterrupted power to our consumers at a competitive price. Availability & Reliability of a power plant is related to the following two elementary performance indicators:

Plant Availability Factor (PAF)

The availability factor of a power plant is the amount of time that it is able to produce electricity over a certain period, divided by the amount of the time in the period.

Plant Load Factor (PLF)

The plant load factor is defined as the ratio of the total actual energy produced over a definite period to the energy that would have been produced if the plant had operated continuously at the maximum rating in the period. PLF measures the % capacity utilization of a plant.

Our target is to attain higher PAF & higher PLF. PAF is related to outage of a unit (full or part). Outages can be planned or forced. Outages like statutory overhauling of boiler and condition-based maintenance fall in the category of planned outages, while outages like boiler tube leak, failure of turbine or generator including their critical auxiliaries lead to forced outages. Sometimes, operational failures, inadequacy of equipment and system disturbances also cause forced outages by tripping of the units. PAF & PLF have to be also maintained as per regulatory norms.

Efficiency Improvement

To serve power to our consumers at a competitive price and to be viable in the power generation business, power plant operation is needed to run efficiently. While high PAF and PLF ensures maximum availability and generation without any interruption, the economic generation of such units depends upon the following factors:

Auxiliary Consumption

Power Plants use a host of motors, pumps, fans, pulverisers, conveyors etc., all of which consume power. This power is met from the Plant's own generation and is known as auxiliary power. It is targeted to lower the auxiliary power using modern technology like Variable Frequency drives, energy efficient motors, resizing and replacement of overdesigned equipment, modifying the operating regime and various other innovative means. The Budge Budge plant is also certified to ISO 50001:2018 for Energy Management systems.

Heat Rate

Heat Rate is the amount of fuel energy (Kcal) required by a power plant to produce one unit (kilowatt- hour) of electrical energy. Increasing combustion efficiency, reducing boiler losses, real time monitoring and improving efficiency of power cycle equipment is practiced.

Keeping all the above factors low leads to lower cost of power generation.

Commitment to environment, climate change mitigation & biodiversity protection


In its constant endeavour to protect and preserve ecological goods and services through judicious use, CESC ensures compliance to applicable environmental regulations in India and de risks its operations from potential risks through a sound Environmental Management System. These processes are periodically audited internally, by external certification bodies and local regulatory authorities


Water conservation is achieved through zero liquid discharge (ZLD), bottom ash recirculation system, domestic sewage water treatment along with rain water harvesting system in all plants. CESC is proud to declare that 100% of treated water is reused and recycled in the operating plants. Specific water consumption figure at Budge Budge is well below the national benchmark.


Conservation of Biodiversity has been maintained around the power plants through formation of green belt in the plant area, cultivation of special medicinal plants and maintaining the water bodies. Other than that, Butterfly Conservation, protection of Migratory birds, pisciculture in water bodies etc. are carried out. Environmental awareness drive in the locality in various forms is also carried out.

Quality policies, Safe workplace & Digitalization

In tune with the core values of the RP-SG group, the power plants are ISO 9001:2015, ISO 14001:2015 , ISO 45001:2018 and ISO 50001 certified certified in respect of Quality Management Systems, Environment Management Systems, Occupational Health and Safety Management Systems and Energy Management Systems. The power stations are moving towards achieving 5S status, notwithstanding having an established culture of KAIZEN.

Safe work environment with respect to workplace safety & employee health is of paramount importance to us and it builds a robust structure to embed safety as an interdependent culture. Guided by safety policy & ISO 45001 frameworks, well-documented system of Occupational Health Management and 24X7 medical team to support, the Division aims at a 'zero incident' workplace.

CESC has been at the forefront of using best-in-class technology and digital interventions to effect improvements in several key areas such as operations, maintenance, safety and asset management. The Centralised Remote Monitoring Control Room monitors the efficiency and reliability of major assets through advanced pattern recognition systems using big data analysis. The Asset Maintenance and Reliability Management system captures and analyses large amounts of data utilising cloud computing and big data analytics to provide a complete picture of machine health with advance indications. Data analytics is also used for optimisation of process parameters and for most efficient operation of the units. Internet of Things (IoT) integration with wireless sensors for monitoring of critical asset parameters is also being increasingly used. Digitalisation of complex maintenance and overhauling procedures by onsite visualisation using digital hand-held devices and application of robotics for inspection of inaccessible areas have also been adopted. At the same time, CESC is also alive to the digital security threats and has taken suitable protective measures, which are also in line with the guidelines issued by Ministry of Power, Government of India.




  • 8th FICCI Quality System Excellence Awards for Industry 2019-Platinum Award
  • 9th FICCI Safety System Excellence Awards 2020-Gold Award in Power Sector
  • ICC Innovation Contest (Prevention Strategy for COVID 19 at Workplaces – Best Workplace Practices)-Gold award
  • 3rd ICC National Occupational Health & Safety Awards 2021-Gold Award
  • Energy And Environment Foundation Global Water Conservation Company of the Year 2021
  • ICC National Occupational Health & Safety Awards 2020 Manufacturing & Engineering Sector- (Power)- Gold Award
  • Asian Power Awards 2014 in Innovative Power Technology
  • RE-Engineering Award 2014 from UNFCCC
  • Excellent Energy Efficient Unit 2014 from CII
  • Best Power Plant in India by CSE (3 Leaves Award), 2015
  • ICC Enviroment Excellence Award 2015
  • "Rashtra Vibhushan Award 2016-17" - Gold Award by FAME
  • Innovative Power Technology of the year - 2017 from Asia Power
  • Greentech Safety Award 2017-18 (Gold)
  • CII National Award for Excellence in Energy Management 2018 - "Excellent Energy Efficient Unit
  • Greentech Enviroment Award 2018 (Platinum)
  • Clean Generator of the year 2018
  • Exceed Award 2018 (Gold)
  • Apex India Green Leaf Award 2019 for Water Stewardship (Gold)
  • EEF Global Award 2019 on Water Conversation
  • Energy Efficient Unit, 2019 by CII
  • CII National Award 2019 on Water Management
  • ICC Enviroment Excellence Award 2019
  • Greentech Enviroment Award 2019
  • National Energy Conversation Award 2020 from Bureau of Energy Efficiency, Ministry of Power
  • Energy and Enviroment Foundation Global Award on Water Management, 2020


  • ICC National Occupational Health & Safety Awards 2020 Manufacturing & Engineering Sector- (Power)- Silver Award
  • ICC Enviroment Excellence Award 2018 - Special Appreciation Award
  • Greentech Enviroment Award - Gold Award in the year 2018,2017,2016,2015
  • Asian Power Awards 2014 - Bronze Award for Innovative Power Technology of the year: Micro Hydel units (3x15 kW) to Extract Waste Energy from Circulating Cooling Water Return to River at the Outfall Point
  • Engineering Excellence Award 2014 (Singapore) - Innovation: Micro Hydel Turbine Aplication in Thermal Power Station
  • Engineering Excellence Award 2014 (Singapore) - Innovation: Zero effluent System
  • IPPAI Power Awards 2014 to recognize Innovation: Cryogenic Isolation Methodology in O&M